Bread Staling Measurement Techniques: A Review

Toktam Mohammadi-Moghaddam, Mohammad Morshedi, Ramina Moalemzadeh Ansari, Amir Golmohammadi, Afsaneh Morshedi and Mohaddeseh Kariminejad



The global production volume of wheat production is almost 785 million metric tons during 2023. Bread is a staple food produced with flour, water, or milk, with or without yeast. It is an important part of people’s worldwide people diet and provides their daily energy. One of the most significant problems in bread production and consumption is its staleness, which begins immediately after baking. Staling is divided into two categories: texture and microbial changes. Texture changes occur first due to moisture migration, followed by microbial changes. Ultimately, the aroma, flavor, and texture of bread become undesirable to consumers. There are many methods for evaluation staling: chemical, macroscopic, rheological, microscopic, structural features, and molecular features methods. All these methods are effective and can be used according to the facilities and conditions of the producers.

Published on: May 31, 2024
doi: 10.17756/jfcn.2024-178
Citation: Mohammadi-Moghaddam T, Morshedi M, Ansari RM, Morshedi A, Golmohamadi A, et al. 2024. Bread Staling Measurement Techniques: A Review. J Food Chem Nanotechnol 10(2): 85-93.