Effects of Milling, Germination Temperature and Time on Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds and Pasting Properties of FARO 44 Brown Rice

Figure 1
Ekpeno Sunday Ukpong, Emeka Felix Okpalanma, Roseline Nwabugo Attaugwu, Babatunde Stephen Oladeji and Uzoma Charles Onyeukwu

 

Abstract

Effects of milling, germination temperature and time on nutrients, bioactive compounds and pasting properties of FARO 44 brown rice (UBR) were evaluated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) samples were obtained by germinating UBR at 30 and 40 °C for 12 and 36 h. Nutrients, bioactive compounds and pasting properties of the GBR were analyzed and compared to the controls which comprised its counterparts from UBR and non-germinated parboiled milled rice (UMR). Results showed that milling reduced the total dietary fiber (36.59%), fat (59.35%), iron (72.69%), calcium (52.83), phosphorus (74.12%), selenium (47.32%), vitamins B1 (75.76%), B2 (51.20%), E (82.61%), total phenolic content (TPC) (50.50%), and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) (71.43%) contents of UBR. Germination enhanced nutrients, bioactive compounds, and modified the pasting properties of UBR. Ash (1.32%), total dietary fiber (8.20%), protein (10.99%), vitamins and minerals (mg/100 g): B2 (1.66), B3 (0.80), B6 (1.04), E (1.38), calcium (106.00), magnesium (43.58), phosphorus (69.60), iron (4.65), zinc (1.70), and selenium (82.20 µg/100 g), TPC (1.01 mgGAE/g), DPPH (0.05 µg/100 g), GABA (2.10 mg/100 g) of UBR decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in UMR but increased significantly in GBR. The observed percentage increments at 36 h of germination were 104.55%, 17.07%, 26.84%, 98.715, 31.18%, 19.22%, 173.58%, 432.35%, 138.56%, 44.92%, 43.565, 9460.00%, and 294.76% for ash, total dietary fiber, protein, iron, zinc, selenium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin E, TPC, DPPH, and GABA, respectively. Protein, amino acids, ash, calcium, magnesium, selenium, vitamins B3 and E and pasting temperature decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in germination temperature while GABA, TPC, iron, zinc, amylose, total reducing sugars, pasting viscosities, and peak time increased as the germination temperature increased. Germination temperature-time of 40 °C, 36 h was recommended due to its optimum bioactive compounds’ contents.

Published on: July 23, 2023
doi: 10.17756/jfcn.2023-153
Citation: Ukpong ES, Okpalanma EF, Attaugwu RN, Oladeji BS, Onyeukwu UC. 2023. Effects of Milling, Germination Temperature and Time on Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds and Pasting Properties of FARO 44 Brown Rice. J Food Chem Nanotechnol 9(2): 78-87.

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