Effects of Milling, Germination Durations and Germination Temperatures on Bioactive Compounds and Nutritional Composition of FARO 57 Brown Rice Cultivar

Ekpeno Sunday Ukpong, Emeka Felix Okpalanma and Clement Chinedum Ezegbe

 

Abstract

Effects of milling, temperature and duration of germination on bioactive compounds and nutrients of FARO 57 brown rice were evaluated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) was produced by germinating FARO 57 brown rice at 30 and 40 oC for 12, 24 and 36 h. Bioactive compounds and nutrients analyzed were compared to that of ungerminated parboiled milled rice (MR) and ungerminated brown rice (BR) of the same cultivar which served as controls. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) (2.57 mg/100 g), total phenolics (1.00 mgGAE/g), total antioxidant activity (DPPH) (2.09 μg/ml), protein (11.05%), lysine (4.19 mg/100g), ash (1.38%), total dietary fibre (8.25%), minerals (mg/100 g) such as calcium (110.00), phosphorus (68.18), magnesium (44.05), iron (3.91), zinc (1.79), selenium (80,10 μg/100 g), vitamins (mg/100 g) examples B2 (1.56) and E (1.39) of BR increased in GBR by 91.44-267.70%, 5.00-10,00%, 43.54-252.63%, 31.31-46.70%, 8.59-14.32%, 139.13-184.06%, 8.73-16.51%, 354.55-422.73%, 82.55-197.79%, 130.58-492.92%, 28.13-168.54%, 40.22-56.42%, 13.48-34.71%, 17.31-129.49%, and 11.51-113.67% respectively but decreased significantly in MR. These variables also increased significantly in GBR as the duration of germination was increased. Total carbohydrate (61.25-72.00%), total starch (54.93- 60.15%) and amylose (22.91-30.40) contents of GBR were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the controls and they decreased as the duration of germination was increased. Increase in germination temperature from 30 oC to 40 oC decreased the DPPH, protein, amino acids, ash, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin E contents significantly but increased the total reducing sugars, iron, calcium and GABA contents. Germination temperature of 40 oC and time of 36 h were recommended due to improved bioactive compounds contents.

Published on: December 24, 2022
doi: 10.17756/jfcn.2022-139
Citation: Ukpong ES, Okpalanma EF, Ezegbe CC. 2022. Effects of Milling, Germination Durations and Germination Temperatures on Bioactive Compounds and Nutritional Composition of FARO 57 Brown Rice Cultivar. J Food Chem Nanotechnol 8(4): 181-191.

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