Due to their lack of pathogenicity, most LAB species have received the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition to their important technological properties in food production, various species of LAB have been shown to possess therapeutic properties since they are able to prevent the development of some diseases as shown mostly using animal models and have the capacity to promote beneficial effects in human and animal health. In recent years, the number of functional food products enriched with live probiotic microorganisms, has increased exponentially since it is known that these can confer health benefits on the host. Besides all beneficial properties studied for various LAB, a special attention need to be pay on the possible presence of virulence factors, production of biogenic amines and antibiotic resistance. This virulence determinant has been well detected and studied in Enterococci and Streptococci, however, in last few years’ report on presence of virulence factors in otherwise GRAS Lactobacilli have been showing the potential upcoming problems. Horizontal gene transfers of virulence factors between pathogenic and LAB, including probiotics is a highly possible scenario in case of uncontrolled application of probiotics. In addition, some of the antimicrobial peptides expressed by LAB may be associated with high cytotoxic properties. A special attention need to be pay on the possible cytotoxicity levels of the expressed bacteriocins in order to drown conclusion for the safe application of the producer or antimicrobial peptides in the bio-preservation and as probiotics.
Citation: Proceedings of the Inaugural International Conference on Probiotics Health and Nutraceuticals (IPN-2016). J Food Chem Nanotechnol 2(Suppl 3): S1-S19.