Women worldwide continue to be infected with HIV at an alarming rate. The majority of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections occur by the mucosal route during unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse. Several commensal Lactobacillus species generally dominate the vaginal microbiota of healthy women of childbearing age and are associated with vaginal health and a reduced risk of bacterial vaginosis (BV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea). These lactobacilli produce hydrogen peroxide and high levels of D-lactate/lactic acid, which contribute to the maintenance of a low vaginal pH (4.0-4.5) and inhibition of genital pathogens.
Citation: Proceedings of the First Probiotics Summit (PBS-2015). J Food Chem Nanotechnol 1(Suppl 1): S1-S16.